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# Two Generals Problem

### Two Generals' Problem - Wikipedi

1. In computing, the Two Generals' Problem is a thought experiment meant to illustrate the pitfalls and design challenges of attempting to coordinate an action by communicating over an unreliable link. In the experiment, two generals are only able to communicate with one another by sending a messenger through enemy territory
2. Two Generals' Problem is a classic computer science problem that remains unsolvable. It comes up whenever we talk about communication over an unreliable channel. The main problem is an inconsistent state caused by lack of common knowledge. There are some pragmatic approaches to the Two Generals' Problem. Extra
3. Two Generals' Problem The Problem. Meet Alice and Bob. Alice is in charge of Army A and Bob Army B. Alice and Bob have been ordered to attack... Two of N Possible Scenarios. There are multiple scenarios that can be derived from this problem. I'll walk through a... Analogy to Computer Science. Let's.
4. Time to tell a story about idempotency, computer science, and the Night of the Multiple Orders. • Sponsored by Dashlane —try 30 days for free at: https://www..
5. The Two Generals' Problem, also known as the Two Generals' Paradox or the Two Armies Problem, is a classic computer science and computer communication though..
6. Two Generals' Problem • We believe the bearish cycle that started from the US presidential election (Trump risk-on rally) will end its first... • We expect the Trump risk-on rally to enter its second stage before summer 2017 due to concerns over: 1) the US..

The Byzantine generals' problem was first theorized by the mathematicians Leslie Lamport, Marshall Pease, and Robert Shostak. The generals are a metaphor for nodes in a decentralized network. The core idea behind this thought experiment is this - How do you ensure that a peer-to-peer, distributed network with no central authority can make correct decisions, even if some of the nodes in it turn rogue? Can we make a distributed system that is trustless and doesn't.

### Two Generals' Problem - Finematic

• The 2 generals problem is the first computer communication problem that proved to be no solution. The Byzantine Generals Problem The Byzantine generals problem was posed by three computer..
• Also, the original messenger himself could see the suffering that the besieged city is being put through and decide to work in their interest instead. Finally, one of the generals might have a gripe with one of the other two generals; this gripe might cause him to become malicious against the general he doesn't like. In his maliciousness, he might send out a retreat message to the general he likes and an attack message to the general he doesn't like, causing the despised.
• ating false information or are otherwise unreliable. Byzantine Army to set the mood

### Two Generals' Problem

In essence, the Byzantine generals' problem is an allegory in the field of computer science, which tells a story of two generals (there can be more than two generals) planning to attack an enemy. solvable if and only if more than two-thirds of the generals are loyal; so a single traitor can confound two loyal generals. With unforgeable written messages, the problem is solvable for any number of generals and possible traitors. Applications of the solutions to reliable computer systems are then discussed

### The Two Generals' Problem - YouTub

Correct. Thus far, the Two Generals' Problem is unsolved, and I strongly suspect there is no solution. The block chain and the concept of proof of work do not solve the problem; it is still impossible for the two generals together to atomically change state from do not attack to attack if the communication medium connecting them is unreliable. In the context of Bitcoin, it is still possible that you may receive a block containing a transaction that pays you, even though the. The problem is complicated by the presence of treacherous generals who may not only cast a vote for a suboptimal strategy, they may do so selectively. For instance, if nine generals are voting, four of whom support attacking while four others are in favor of retreat, the ninth general may send a vote of retreat to those generals in favor of retreat, and a vote of attack to the rest. Those who received a retreat vote from the ninth general will retreat, while the rest will attack.

‎Show Q.E.D. Code, Ep QED 10: The Two Generals Problem - Mar 8, 201 En computación, el Problema de los dos generales, también llamado Problema de las dos armadas o Problema del Ataque Coordinado, es un experimento mental que ilustra los problemas y retos de diseño involucrados en la coordinación de una acción a través de una comunicación a través de un vínculo poco fiable. [1] [2] Está relacionado con el más general Problema de los generales. Bitcoin and the Byzantine Generals Problem. In fault-tolerant computer systems, and in particular distributed computing systems, Byzantine fault tolerance is the characteristic of a system that tolerates the class of failures known as the Byzantine Generals' Problem, which is a generalized version of the Two Generals' Problem A GPLv2 simulation of the 2 generals problem in Common Lisp. - simonhiaty/2generals1proble

Answer to About the Two Generals Problem (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_Generals%27_Problem.) Why is this problem unsolvable y.. This is termed the general elution problem. A simple solution is to increase the column temperature during the course of the separation. The well-resolved, highly volatile solutes are removed from the column at the lower temperatures before the low-volatility solutes leave the origin at the column inlet. This techniqu I come back to my Laptop (where I played it from) and tried to connect to it with the official link cable when it comes up with a general device problem. I've been working on it for hours trying to fix it, but to know avail. What I've learned about it is that it is not a broken cable, because it works completely fine when connected to my.

Byzantine Generals' Problem: Dealing With Dishonest Actors. However, we need to consider the possibility that if all Generals made a plan to attack the city and one General was lying, and instead of attacking the city, that General or his or her army left, Martinsson notes. He points out that this would pose a problem to the army as a whole because now they are not working in a unit. The Byzantine Generals Problem. Computer systems organization. Architectures. Distributed architectures. Networks. Network protocols. Software and its engineering. Software organization and properties. Extra-functional properties. Software fault tolerance. Software system structures. Distributed systems organizing principles . Comments. Login options. Check if you have access through your. General Failure. Looking back on the troubled wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, many observers are content to lay blame on the Bush administration. But inept leadership by American generals was also.

### Two Generals' Problem Explained - YouTub

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2. Two Generals Problem is related to Byzantine's General Problem, but yet it's not the same.Byzantine's General Problem is a generalized version of Two Generals Problem, and often discussed within the context of distributed systems, fault tolerance, and blockchain.. Two Generals. Two generals are positioned on the opposite side of each other and between them is a castle
3. Two Generals Problem is related to Byzantine's General Problem, but yet it's not the same. Byzantine's General Problem is a generalized version of Two Generals Problem, and often discussed within the context of distributed systems, fault tolerance, and blockchain. Two Generals Problem Two generals are positioned on th
4. In computing, the Two Generals' Problem is a thought experiment meant to illustrate the pitfalls and design challenges of attempting to coordinate an action by communicating over an unreliable link. In the experiment, two generals are only able to communicate with one another by sending a messenger through enemy territory. The experiment asks how they might reach an agreement on the time to.
5. The problem. This thought experiment takes us back to Byzantine times, with two generals leading an army to attack a fortified city. They quickly realize that their only chance of winning involves attacking from opposite positions, and soon after one of the two generals notices a break in the city's defenders. They both reach an agreement.
6. Two Generals problem by Dmitry Kirsanov 27. July 2020 20:00. There is a logical problem, a thought experiment for emulating the communication over an unreliable link, called the Two Generals' Problem. In case if, like most people, you never heard of it, here is the definition: Two armies, each led by a different general, are preparing to attack a fortified city. The armies are encamped.

### Two Generals' Problem Seeking Alph

The two generals problem. This is a fun thought-experiment highlighting the challenges of communicating over an unreliable channel — where your message may or may not get through, and where you won't know if it has. The situation is that two armies, either side of a hostile valley, are trying to coordinate an attack, and they want to attack. There is no algorithm by which two agents, separated by time and unreliable means of communication, can ever come up with a plan that requires both agents to act on the plan and guarantees success. The original formulation was: Two generals are o.. In essence, the Byzantine generals' problem is an allegory in the field of computer science, which tells a story of two generals (there can be more than two generals) planning to attack an enemy city. The generals tell both armies to attack from each side of the enemy's castle, the east side and the west side. The issue at hand is a timing or synchronization problem coupled with trust.

### Two Generals and Time Machines - GitHub Page

• Contribute to martin-morales/Two-Generals-Problem development by creating an account on GitHub
• The Two Generals' Problem was the first computer communication problem to be proved to be unsolvable. An important consequence of this proof is that generalizations like the Byzantine Generals problem are also unsolvable in the face of arbitrary communication failures, thus providing a base of realistic expectations for any distributed consistency protocols
• The problem is that the network is not instantaneous, and if two generals announce different plans at close to the same time, some may hear one first and others hear the other first. They use a proof-of-work chain to solve the problem. Once each general receives whatever plan he hears first, he sets his computer to solve a difficult hash-based proof-of-work problem that includes the plan in.
• How the Two Generals problem caused a massive food delivery service screw up Mark Frauenfelder 9:57 am Mon Aug 12, 2019 One night in September 2018 the food delivery service Deliveroo went haywire
• As I understand it, the point of the Two Generals problem is that is that neither party is willing to proceed while the chance of the other proceeding is less than 100%. I also know that classically, each additional message increases the chance of a general proceeding asymptotically towards 100%. But if we set boundary conditions such as these, and then add some layers of redundant messages.

the Chinese Generals Problem, in which two generals have to come to a common agreement on whether to attack or retreat, but can communicate only by sending messengers who might never arrive The problem can be practically described with three imaginary Byzantine generals preparing themselves to either attack or retreat from a siege (an example with three generals is the easiest one to understand). Each general has an army of his own, and these armies are positioned at various sides of the besieged city. The city is strong enough to handle a single army attacking it, maybe even two.

Two Generals' Problem: | In computing, the |Two Generals' Problem| is a |thought experiment| meant to illustrate t... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled ' More precisely, no such solution exists for three or more generals, since the problem is trivial for two generals. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 1982. 386 L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease solution for a group of 3m or fewer and use it to construct a three-general solution to the Byzantine Generals Problem that works with one traitor, which we. The Two Generals Problem A taste of distributed systems 2. Why? Distributed systems touch everyone's lives at some point or another. People ask, why can't stuff just work? Answer: Distributed Systems are hard. Two Generals Problem is a fun problem I can maybe describe in 5 minutes. 3. Set the Scene To make things confusing, we're going to explain this problem with. Any two loyal Generals use the same value of u(i) 2. If the i-th General is loyal then the value that he sends must be used by every loyal General as the value of u(i) 17. Problem Deﬁnition Conditions 1 & 2 are both conditions on the single value sent by the i-th General Our consideration should focus on how a single General sends his values to the others This is phrased as a Commanding. Two Generals. A beautifully illustrated and poignant graphic memoir that tells the story of World War II from an Everyman's perspective. In March of 1943, Scott Chantler's grandfather, Law Chantler, shipped out across the Atlantic for active service with the Highland Light Infantry of Canada, along with his best friend, Jack, a fellow officer

Now the two generals split a group of messengers but the only way the messengers can communicate is by entering via the enemy castle. The Byzantine generals' problem is not being able to trust. The Two Generals Problem. This week's problem is another classic computer science puzzle that is designed to deal with communication protocols. The problem statement is as follows . Two armies. The Byzantine Generals' Problem is a thought experiment that deals with a key question of computer science: is it possible to form a consensus in a computer network composed of independent, geographically distributed nodes? ‍ The problem was proposed in 1982 by researchers from the SRI International Research Institute. It goes as follows: there are a number of Byzantine generals besieging a. The Byzantine Generals Problem • 393 appears on two different orders, and A4 states t h a t only he could have generated those signatures. In Algorithm SM(m), a lieutenant signs his name to acknowledge his receipt of an order. If he is the ruth lieutenant to add his signature to the order, then t h a t signature is not relayed to anyone else by its recipient, so it is superfluous. (More.

### The Byzantine Generals Problem - Microsoft Researc

• two generals problem tcp; two generals problem tcp. 20 de janeiro de 2021 - Revista.
• Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) & Generals' Problem Explained. The developers of NEO, one of the world's largest platforms for building and deploying decentralized applications (dApps), have proposed a new type of blockchain consensus algorithm called delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT). As NEO's new consensus mechanism.
• The Byzantine Generals Problem. Instead of a computer system trying to reach consensus, consider the following analogy: During one of the many wars fought by the Byzantine empire, several army divisions lay siege to a city. The generals need to stay at their posts and can only communicate by messenger. The generals now need to agree on whether to attack or retreat. However, some of the.
• The Two General's problem is also known as the Two Generals Paradox, the Two Armies Problem or the Coordinated Attack Problem. We find of interest that it was the first computer communication problem to be proved to be unsolvable in the face of arbitrary communication failures, thus providing a base of realistic expectations for any distributed consistency protocols
• Lamport et al. investigated this failure, and they model it as the Byzantine Generals Problem, which made this special type of failure well known as the ``byzantine failure'' model. Their simple conclusion is that, using only oral messages (which implied the message is forgeable), the problem is solvable iff more than two thirds of the generals are loyal. With unforgeable (written.

basic description of two generals' problem is considered. In sections 3 and 4, the algorithmic approaches to implement immutability are presented. The setup for model problem is considered in. The asymmetry of trust in this transaction is known as the Byzantine General's Problem. Imagine we have four generals planning to attack a city. At least three of the generals must attack at the same time to overpower the army holding the city. However, the only way they can communicate with each other is via messenger, and they do not know if one of the generals is a traitor. If a general. President Joe Biden on Monday announced he has nominated two female generals to positions as 4-star combatant commanders after their promotions had been delayed under the Trump administration

(classic problem) Definition: The problem of reaching a consensus among distributed units if some of them give misleading answers. To be memorable, the problem is couched in terms of generals deciding on a common plan of attack. Some traitorous generals may lie about whether they will support a particular plan and what other generals told them The Byzantine Generals Problem. L. Lamport, R. Shostak, and M. Pease @ SRI International. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, July 1982, pages 382-401. Byzantine Generals Problem and its Applications Byzantine General Problem. The Classic Problem. Each division of Byzantine army are directed its own general: Generals, some of which are traitors, communicate each other by. Byzantine Generals' problem A generalised version of the Two Generals' Problem, which refers to the problem of reaching a consensus among distributed units if some participants (Generals) provide intentionally misleading answers

The problem is to find an algorithm to ensure that the loyal generals will reach agreement. It is shown that, using only oral messages, this problem is solvable if and only if more than two-thirds. Home » ไลฟ์สไตล์ » Uncategorized » two generals problem blockchain. two generals problem blockchain. by | posted in: Uncategorized | 0 | posted in: Uncategorized | Pentagon extremism adviser lays out challenge facing military after two commanders deny a problem exists. By Barbara Starr, CNN Pentagon Correspondent. Updated 5:27 PM ET, Wed April 21, 2021 (CNN. Two Generals' Problem. Academic disciplines Business Concepts Crime Culture Economy Education Energy Events Food and drink Geography Government Health Human behavior Humanities Knowledge Law Life Mind Objects Organizations People Philosophy Society Sports Universe World Arts Lists Glossaries. 2081: A Hopeful View of the Human Future : Aftermath (2010 TV series) Aftermath: Population Zero: Anti.

421 The Two Generals Problem Probably the first distributed consensus problem. 421 the two generals problem probably the first. School Western Governors University; Course Title IT C170; Uploaded By drthtater. Pages 64 This preview shows page 39 - 41 out of 64 pages.. The two generals make the claims in a video (archived here) published to YouTube on April 5, 2021. McInerney: COVID-19 isn't a problem. His statement could perhaps be construed as an opinion, but by all objective measures, COVID-19 is a problem. At 19 minutes, 10 seconds, McInerney said: We have a 99.2% survival rate on COVID-19 It's not a problem. So far, the reported survival rate of.

Then, of course, that confirmation has to be also confirmed and we end up with an infinite exchange of confirmations. TCP allows for the retransmission of lost packets, thereby making sure that all data transmitted is (eventually) received. An important consequence of this proof is that generalizations like the Byzantine Generals Problem are also unsolvable in the face of arbitrary. The Byzantine Generals Problem is rephrased as meeting two conditions: - C1. Any two loyal generals use the same value of v(i) sent from the i-th general. - C2. If the ith general is loyal, then the value that he sends must be used by every loyal general as the value of v(i). Thus, the problem is to consider how a single general sends his value to the others. + This paper proves that if the. two generals problem fan pages and collection of videos and photos of two generals problem. Create fan page of two generals problem on Rediff Pages I am having this problem also I just brought the Deluxe Edition of Command & Conquer Generals & Zero Hour, and it will not load on my Windows 10 computer with 64-Bit 36.0 GB Ram. Help Please I so enjoy playing this game. Curtis Young [edit: email address removed

The Two Generals Problem Series Metadata. Creator: Draskireis Series Begun: 2017-11-28 Series Updated: 2018-07-06 Stats: Words: 100,437 Works: 2 Complete: No Bookmarks: 23. Listing Series. Past and Present Tension by Draskireis Fandoms: Check Please! (Webcomic) Teen And Up Audiences; No Archive Warnings Apply; M/M; Complete Work ; 16 Jan 2018. Tags. No Archive Warnings Apply; Derek Nursey. In computing, the Two Generals Problem is a thought experiment meant to illustrate the pitfalls and design challenges of attempting to coordinate an action by communicating over an unreliable link. It is related to the more general Byzantine Generals Problem (though published long before that later generalization) and appears often in introductory classes about computer networking. If all generals and messengers were trustworthy then there is no problem, a consensus is absolute. However, some of the messengers and even a few generals/commanders could be traitors. If they are spies or enemy soldiers, there is a very high chance that they will not follow orders; they will pass on the incorrect message. There has to be some form of verification in order to make sure that.

In his CTU talk, Ed W0YK introduced me to the Two Generals Problem - a concept that was not discussed formally in communications theory until the 1970's - and its relation to contesting NIL's. Of course contesters have been trying to reduce their NIL rate since before the 1970's. And in CW, Phone, and RTTY I think our context in our contesting exchanges was (from the school of hard knocks. Summary: This paper studies the Byzantine Generals Problem and presented two algorithms to solve the problem. The first one assumes using only oral messages to communicate and can solve the Byzantine Generals problem when at most one third of the generals are loyal. The other one assumes authentic signatures can be employed and can solve the problem with any number of traitors. Problem: Assume. The Simplified Two Generals Problem for Communication Immutability and Security Over Multiple Heterogeneous Channels Buy Article: \$107.05 + tax (Refund Policy) Authors: Pshehotskaya, Ekaterina 1; Mikhalsky, Oleg 1; Vinnikov, Vladimir 2; Source: Advanced Science Letters, Volume 24, Number 10, October 2018, pp. The Byzantine Generals Problem (2/2) ! A commanding general must send an order to his n-1 lieutenant generals such that: ! IC1. All loyal lieutenants obey the same order. ! IC2. If the commanding general is loyal, then every loyal lieutenant obeys the order he sends. ! Solution: (3m + 1) generals for m traitors + A solution: Oral Messages (1/2) A1. Every message that is sent is delivered.

This problem cannot be solved if the generals can send only oral messages unless more than two-third of the generals are loyal. By defining oral message with assumptions that A1) the message is delivered correctly, A2) the receiver knows the sender of the message, and A3) the absence of a message can be detected, algorithm OM(m) is presented and proved can solve the problem correctly. The. I have buy the Command and Conquer Generals and Zero Hour (from origin) i just press to download the game and then install it. When i want to run it, origin pop upand then nothing. I have uncheck the enable origin in game i have reinstall the game, repair. but i got the same problem :/. Windows 10 64bit. 1 person had this problem

Given the Two Generals problem, I wanted to frame eventual consistency as the below, (but it doesn't work): Alice sends a message saying Attack on XX:XX on the nth day, and sends that message each day, with nth changing to (n - days)th. If the network (Eve) is lossy, it means she doesn't automatically burn all messages, so eventually, Bob will receive Alice's message. Bob then responds. In computing, the Two Generals' Problem is a thought experiment meant to illustrate the pitfalls and design challenges of attempting to coordinate an action by communicating over an unreliable link. It is related to the more general Byzantine Generals' Problem (though published long before that later generalization) and appears often in introductory classes about computer networking. Home » ไลฟ์สไตล์ » Uncategorized » two generals problem blockchain. two generals problem blockchain. by | posted in: Uncategorized | 0 | posted in: Uncategorized |

Any two loyal generals use the same value of v(i). 2. If the ith general is loyal, then the value that he sends must be used by every loyal general as the value of v (i). Model 3: It is still hard to analyze because it is completely distributed. We don't know which general to start from when analyzing it. Actually we can reduce the model above to a centralized model. We name it commander. Problem Statement: Byzantine Generals Problem(BGP) The setting: There are n generals, one of them the commanding general.Generals can send (and receive) messages from other generals. The problem: Develop a communication protocol for the commanding general to send an order to the n-1 lieutenant generals so that All loyal lieutenants obey the same orde

Proof of Work and how it solves the Byzantine Generals Problem. April 26, 2018 . Proof of Work (PoW) is the original blockchain consensus algorithm, and is used in projects such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. It is the mechanism that enables users on a blockchain network to reach an agreed 'truth'. A proof of work is essentially an answer to a complex mathematical problem. It takes a lot of work. QED 10: The Two Generals Problem by Q.E.D. Code. Listener Richard Allen writes to ask about proving enough of a program correct to constrain the number of tests that must be written. I respond that you need both tests and proof. Otherwise, how could you know that the specification is what you intended? Two generals wish to reach consensus by sending messengers through enemy territory. How can. When you begin the game, the Roman Senate faction has among its named characters (along with the three Maxentius family members) two generals, standing by themselves (i.e. just general's bodyguard units) just outside the city of Rome, with randomly-generated GREEK names and portraits (they are different every time you begin a new game, but they are always Greek). These two characters also. TWO GENERALS is based in large part on the diaries of the author's grandfather, a lieutenant in the Canadian army in World War II. Chantler's approach is, in some ways, just the facts, ma'am, avoiding mawkish sentimentality; yet, he is not scared of nostalgia, humor, or genuine human connection. The comic also manages to honor the brave fighters without cheerleading or propaganda, in much. Once the city had sent their new message off on its way to one of the generals, even with the correct nonce, that general would now have two conflicting messages — one saying ATTACK TOMORROW AT NOON and the other RETREAT IMMEDIATELY. Or in the case of the Bitcoin wallet, I AM SENDING JOHNNY 1BTC and I AM SENDING SARAH 100BTC. They have an internal consensus problem.

### the two generals problem : danganronp

• The Two Generals Problem was the first widely-known distributed consensus problem, described in 1978 by Jim Gray (although it previously appeared under a different name). The setup of the problem is that we have two generals on opposite sides of an enemy army, who must choose whether to attack the army or retreat. If only one general attacks, his troops will be slaughtered. So the generals.
• Problem for 3 generals, if one of them can be a traitor. •Generalization: There is no algorithm for 3f generals, if f or more of them can be traitors. (proof by reduction from 3 generals, 1 traitor) 3f generals, f of them traitors •Proof by contradiction: 1. Assume a solution for BGP(3f, f) for some f 2. Use it to solve BGP(3,1) ontradiction with there is no solution to GP (3,1.
• The first line contains an integer n ( 2 ≤ n ≤ 5000 ), n is the number of guard towers. Then follow n lines, each of which contains two integers x, y — the coordinates of the i -th tower (0 ≤ x, y ≤ 5000). No two towers are present at one point. Pretest 6 is one of the maximal tests for this problem
• ate the trivial possibility of.
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• In lotr they have d/c problem repeating from generals....and they can't solve it.My friend wrote them i bet they r using his ideas to fix their problems. Cheep bastards,for online game they r using p2p connection instead online server like Blizard. If someone knows how to fix this problem tell me plz. Share this post. Link to post. Thierry 0 Thierry 0 Thez; Veteran Members; 0 1,949 posts.

### Two Generals' Problem - Wikiwan

A thorough analysis of the problem shows that such an algorithm is possible, but only if more than two-thirds of generals are loyal. Decentralized cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin (BTC) are in essence distributed computer systems: their networks are composed of individual nodes operated by independent people or organizations that compete to process transactions and add them to the end of the. Red Bull Boss: Two police generals among ten senior officials that could face prosecution Red Bull Boss: Two police generals among ten senior officials that could face prosecution . By webfact, 6 hours ago in Thailand News. Share Followers 8. Prev; 1; 2; 3; Next; Page 3 of 3 . Recommended Posts. spidermike007 39366 Posted 1 hour ago. spidermike007. spidermike007; Advanced Members; 39366 16943.

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